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Scientific name of All Spices: Pimenta dioica Linn.
Synonyms: Pimenta officinalis Lindl
Name in different languages:-
English: Jamaican Pepper Plant, pimenta, Jamaica pimenta, or myrtle pepper
Kannada : Gandamenasu
It is an evergreen aromatic tree which may attain a height of 12m. Leaves are aromatic. Flowers are small and white in colour with a peculiar aroma. They are present in groups of cymes. They are structurally hermaphrodite but functionally dioecious. Those trees which bear no fruit are male trees where in the flowers will have above 100 stamens and the flowers in bearing female trees have around 50 stamens. The receptacle has four cream coloured calyx lobe, spreading at anthesis and persistent in the fruit. Petals are 4, whitish and quickly deciduous. The style is white with a yellow stigma. In females, the style is slightly shorter and the stigma longer than in the barren trees. The ovary is inferior and two celled, usually with one ovule in each cell. Fruits are berries, matures 3-4 months later, globular, 5-7 mm across, reddish brown in colour and with a some what rough surface. The fruit has two kidney shaped seeds. Male trees flower early.
Useful plant parts:
Fruit can be used against flatulence, diarrhea, dyspepsia, neuralgia and rheumatism
Essential oils from berries contains chiefly eugenol, methyleugenol, iso-caryophyllene, beta-caryophyllene and alpha-phellandrene
Berry oil and leaf oil is used as carminative and stimulant. It is diuretic.
Fruits are ready to harvest after 3-4 months of flowering. The unripe berry is more spicy and somewhat peppery in taste. They are gathered by climbing on ladder. After harvest ripe berries are separated from freen ones.